Charlottetown is the cradle of Confederation. There is lots of history in this city, many period homes, and you are surrounded by the (hmmm…) smell of saltwater. You are not far from a defensive fort, the PEI National Park, and Kensington area made famous by Anne of Green Gables.
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The City of Charlottetown, incorporated in 1855, is located at the centre of Prince Edward Island, and is nationally recognized as the “Birthplace of Confederation“. The province is home to some of Canada’s prettiest oceanside beaches, some in a protected National Park on the island’s north shore. The Island is also home (around Cavendish) to Anne of Green Gables, a character featured in the novels by Lucy Maude Montgomery, and island native.
Charlottetown’s commercial district includes 65,000 resident and the Charlottetown city has 39,000 people. Charlottetown has all the trappings of a modern urban centre, including some of the best educational facilities, cultural venues and economic opportunities in Canada. The 1997 opening of the Confederation Bridge joining Prince Edward Island to the mainland Canada increased the city’s accessibility to other parts of Canada. Charlottetown boasts the lowest cost of living in Canada.
Government service industries are the largest employers in Charlottetown, followed by health and social service industries. The city is home to both the University of Prince Edward Island and Holland College, both offering a wide range of programs, including applied arts and technical education.
Whether it’s a visit to a park, an art gallery or the area’s history, Charlottetown offers its visitors and residents lots to do every day of the week.
Whether it’s a visit to a park, an art gallery or the area’s history, Charlottetown offers its visitors and residents lots to do every day of the
Charlottetown Travel, Visitor, and Tourism Information & Links
The Island was among the early discoveries of the explorer and navigator John Cabot, who named it Saint John, from the day of its discovery. Since Britain failed to lay a claim to it, the French included it in its colonies in 1523. In 1663, the Company of New France granted various islands in the St Lawrence to Sieur Doublet, a captain in the French navy, who established a few fishing stations but no permanent settlements.
The first Acadian and French colonists settled in 1720, at the settlement of Port la Joie across the harbor to the south of modern Charlottetown, and over the next 35 years, the Acadian population grew and developed. Over the next 40 years the area moved several times between English & French control but in 1758 after Louisbourgfell, Wolfe seized the Island of St John before capturing Quebec and removing North America from French control.
Under British Control
The new British governors expelled the Acadians from the Atlantic colonies to what is now the State of Louisiana, deporting 6,000 in 1755 and 3,000 in 1758.
After the British took control of Prince Edward Island in 1763, Port la Joie became the site of Fort Amherst, protecting the harbor for Captain Samuel Holland’s new Charlottetown settlement, just across the harbor from Port la Joie. Holland named it Charlotte Town, after Charlotte, wife of King George III, and in 1768 it became the capital of the colony. In 1768 Charles Morris, the chief surveyor for the colony of Nova Scotia laid out a detailed plan with 500 building lots on 270 acres (all between the waterfront and Euston Street) and 565 acres of common pasture area.
Following the American Revolution, many Loyalists fled north from the former colonies to settle here. The colony took on the name of Prince Edward Island, and had had its first assembly in 1803. The Colonial Building (now called “Province House”), was completed in 1847, and hosted its first session of the Prince Edward Island legislature that year. During the session of 1863, an act to extend the elective franchise was passed, which made that privilege almost universal. In 1864, the Fathers of Confederation met in this building to discuss the union of the colonies.
In 1855, Charlottetown was incorporated, as well and in 1861, a commission settled all of the land claims on the island, which were poorly recorded until that time, The 1861 census counted 80,856 residents, including 356 Indians.
Confederation Era Charlottetown
On July 16, 1866, the city experienced “The Great Fire”, its worst of several fires, which broke out in an old building near the waterfront and destroyed nearly four city blocks with one hundred buildings, leaving 30 families homeless. The fire prompted the city government to promote brick construction, causing the many brick buildings of the downtown area to be built.
The question of a union of the North American Provinces originally considered just Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island. The 1864 Charlottetown Conference expanded this plan included the colonies of Upper Canada (now Ontario) & Lower Canada (now Quebec), Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island under one government.
This led to the formation of Canada on July 1st, 1867, though ironically PEI didn’t consider the terms fair enough to join Canada itself. The province’s sandy soils made roads difficult to maintain and the cost & debt of building the Island’s railway helped convince them to join Canada in 1873.
In the late 1800s, four industries became major income sources for Islanders: potatoes from the rich, sandy soil, fox-breeding in the western part of the island, lobster (once just used just as fertilizer) become loved by gourmets, and oysters particularly those from Malpeque Bay.
Ships, and in the winter nimble ice boats, were the prime method of getting shipments to and from the island, and in 1905, PEI had asked the federal government for a tunnel, but was turned down. In 1916 regular ferry service to the island was started. By 1921 Charlottetown’s population had grown to 10,814.
Recent Charlottetown History
In 1964, The Confederation Centre of the Arts is built as the National Memorial to the Fathers of Confederation, who met at the 1864 Charlottetown Conference. The Centre is home to the world-famous Charlottetown Festival, as well as Canadian musical theatre and comedy, art, exhibitions, music, dining, shopping and free guided tours.
In 1983 the federal Department of Veteran’s Affairs was relocated to Charlottetown, as part of the Trudeau government’s efforts to decentralize the federal government to be moved out of the Canadian national capital of Ottawa. This was followed a decade later by the location of the Goods & Services Tax (GST) offices.
In 1992 Charlottetown was the site of the signing of the Charlottetown Accord, an agreement between Canadian federal and provincial governments designed to amend the Canadian constitution. Charlottetown was chosen for the signing because of its significance as the Birthplace of Confederation. The accord was defeated in a national vote on October 26, 1992.
In 1993 Great George Street is designated as a National Historic District, graced with the splendor of Province House National Historic Site, which is both the seat of Island government and the location of the 1864 Charlottetown Conference.
In 1997, the 13 km (8 mi) long Confederation Bridgebecame the first highway link between Prince Edward Island and the mainland. It is the world’s longest multi-span bridge over salt water, and replaces a ferry service along the same route, leaving just the ferry across the Northumberland Strait from Wood Islands, east of Charlottetown, to North Sydney, Nova Scotia.
In 2001, Founders’ Hall and Canada’s Birthplace Pavilion, celebrates its grand opening. The 1906 building was originally the CN railway car repair shop and is now a 21,000 square foot heritage attraction, restaurant and retail boutique.
Environmentally conscious Islanders have been opposed to absentee landlord development and formed watchdog groups to keep an eye on development. Land use conflicts have pitted farmers, fishermen, and environmentalists against powerful local business and tourism interests as well as the federal government, with the provincial government taking the middle ground.
Today PEI produces half the world’s potatoes, with half produced in Prince County. PEI seedlings and agricultural advice have helped potato across in 32 countries around the world.
Charlottetown photos shot for FoundLocally by Ryan Palmer and Andrew Chisholm.
Trans Canada Highway Notes
Since 2000, there has been considerable construction in the province to build a Bypass Route to enable traffic (especially to other parts of the Island) to bypass Charlottetown’s downtown, and has been re-designated it as the #1. This speed traffic to both PEI National Park to the north and into Kings County east of the city. As well, the route from the PEI Confederation Bridge up to Charlottetown has been straightened to bypass several villages and towns along the way. The best route into downtown, coming from the Confederation Bridge is via North River Road or via University Avenue.
Here are some history notes, organized by Itinerary Segment (from west to east):
Look for what to see & do, and where to stay in the capital city Charlottetown and the nearby communities around Prince Edward Island. First click on the LOCALE to search, then use the CATEGORY filter on the left side for the feature of interest!